A Note on Immune Response to Environmental Exposure and Immunoregulation Properties


A Note on Immune Response to Environmental Exposure and Immunoregulation Properties

Immunogenetics: Open access journal focuses on the genetic research areas of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, systemic lupus erythematous, etc.

The journal invites different types of articles including original research article, review articles, short note communications, case reports, Editorials, letters to the Editors and expert opinions & commentaries from different regions for publication.

Immune Response to Environmental Exposure

The immune system is among the most sensitive targets regarding toxicity of environmental pollutants. Having a critical role in maintaining human and animal health, suppression of immunological function can result in increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases. Environmental pollutants can moderate several mechanisms of the immune system at various cellular and subcellular levels, either during immune ontogeny, immune activation, or immune effector functions. Immunotoxic mechanisms induced by representative pollutants compromising innate and adaptive immunity are discussed in this article, such as immunotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) induced through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and altered production of reactive oxygen species in phagocytes due to modulation of NADPH oxidase by pesticides, metals, and PAHs. Immune end points used in tier-based toxicity assessment are discussed together with the description of the cellular and subcellular immune processes that provide the rationale of their employment as well as portray their significance and limitations. Some well-documented effects of metals, PAHs, PHAHs, and pesticides on these immune end points in mammals, fish, and invertebrates are discussed along with functional disruption of cell-mediated immunity from pollutant-induced altered cytokine balance during perinatal and early life exposure.

Immunoregulation Properties

The immune system is responsible for the body’s defense against bacteria and virus and for the prevention of cancer. Seaweeds can improve the immunoregulation properties through the various bioactive substances such as carotenes and sulfated polysaccharides. It is known that carotene rich foods can help in preventing lung cancer and enhance the body’s immunocompetence. In a study where scientists follow up 2000 people with 195 specified foods in their diet, there was clear correlation between carotene rich food and the reduction of lung cancer. Phycobiliproteins are also known to enhance immunocompetence. Sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidan can regulate the immune response through activating or inhibiting the activities of macrophages and other immune cells to either enhance or suppress the production of specific antibodies. Although macrophages can release a number of cytokines such as IL, TNF, INF, and other chemokines, which are important elements of the immune response, sulfated polysaccharides can interact with the macrophage cells to stimulate its immune response.

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Immunogenetics: Open Access
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