Advances in Immunology & Vaccine Technology and Their Impact
Vaccines play a vital role in the healthcare department especially for growing children. A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. Totally 26 Vaccines are available authorized by the WHO. Different Vaccines are Measles vaccines, Rubella vaccines, Cholera vaccines, Meningococcal disease vaccines, Influenza vaccines, Diphtheria vaccines, Mumps vaccines, Tetanus vaccines, Hepatitis A vaccines, Pertussis vaccines, Tuberculosis vaccines, Hepatitis B vaccines, Pneumococcal disease vaccines, Typhoid fever vaccines, Hepatitis E vaccines, Poliomyelitis vaccines, Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines, Haemophilus influenza type b vaccines, Rabies vaccines, Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines, Human papilloma-virus vaccines, Rotavirus gastroenteritis vaccines, Yellow fever vaccines, Japanese encephalitis vaccines, Malaria vaccines and Dengue fever vaccines. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. This Conference brings out the knowledge about Highlights of latest technologies and innovations in Vaccines and Immunization.
Cancer, Malaria & TB Vaccines:
Malaria continues to claim an estimated 2 to 3 million lives annually and to account for untold morbidity in the approximately 300 to 500 million people infected annually. Malaria is considered a re-emerging disease, due largely to the spread of drug-resistant parasite strains, decay of health-care infrastructure and difficulties in implementing and maintaining vector control programs in many developing countries. Four species of protozoan parasites cause malaria in humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malaria, and P. oval. P. falciparum is responsible for the majority of deaths and most of the severe forms of disease, including cerebral malaria. 2 billion people latently infected with M. tuberculosis 5-10% infected people progress to disease 9 million new TB cases each year 1.5 million TB deaths each year Equivalent to 20 passenger aircraft crashes each day. TB is transmitted by adults with cavitatory disease, HIV infected people carry greater burden of disease. Highest risk of progression from TB infection to active disease, and worst TB morbidity and mortality, compared to older children and adults.
The most important breakthroughs of the past century involved the development of vaccines to protect against viruses: smallpox, polio, hepatitis, human papillomavirus(HPV), and even chickenpox. But one virus remains elusive to those seeking to create a vaccine to guard against it: HIV. Getting vaccinated early, before sexual exposure, is also effective in preventing certain types of STIs. Vaccines are available to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
Combination & Conjugate Vaccines:
Increasingly, more diseases are becoming vaccine preventable, but maintaining community and provider acceptance demands that the number of injections doesn’t increase. Combination conjugate vaccines represent an inevitable and important advance. This paper reviews the efficacy and safety of combination conjugate vaccines, including immunological mechanisms underlying interactions among vaccine epitopes, the role of immunological memory, and correlates of immunity. Specific attention is given to the experience with combination vaccines against each of Haemophilus influenza type b, Streptococcus pneumonia and Neisseria meningitides. The implications of these findings for different communities are discussed, key areas for further research identified and implications for post-licensure monitoring addressed.
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Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination