Parathyroid Carcinoma has a PD-L1 Expression, and Share with Atypical Neoplasms an Abundant Intratumoral Macrophagic Infiltration - A Short Commentary
In the era of immunotherapy as a therapeutic option for solid tumors, the immuno-tumor characterization of parathyroid neoplasms is timely and necessary. Since conventional therapeutic options are limited for controlling the progression of parathyroid carcinoma, new modalities of treatment are desperately needed. Four distinct tumor microenvironments have been proposed based on the existence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1); type I (TILs+/PD-L1+), type II (TILs-/PD-L-), type III (TILs-/PD-L1+), and type IV (TILs+/PD-L1-). These immunogenic subtypes may predict responses to these therapies.
Medical and surgical pathology (NLM ID: 101689989) deals with the macroscopic and microscopic examination of surgical specimens for effective diagnosis of disease. Surgical specimens are of two categories, biopsies, and surgical resections. Surgical pathology also includes subdivisions such as dermatopathology, cytopathology, hematopathology, neuropathology and pediatric pathology.
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Journal of Medical and Surgical Pathology
ISSN: 2472-4971 | NLM ID: 101245791